Child abuse is the most common type of abuse we see in everyday life.  WHO says all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment whether it is sexually or neglecting or exploiting or harming a child’s health is abuse.

Child abuse can be classified into four types:

  • Neglect.
  • Physical abuse.
  • Psychological abuse.
  • Sexual abuse.


Includes not giving adequate healthcare, protection from the danger, and essential need of life, food, clothing, and shelter, has not been given.  It is the most common type of abuse many of the children undergo every day.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Poor hygiene.
  • Improper clothing.
  • Underweight.
  • Inadequate medical care and follow-up.

Physical abuse

Includes beating, burning, and biting the child.  The threshold for defining this abuse has not been clear.  Rib fractures and bruising are common findings associated with child abuse.

Different types of violence and injuries are noted by the ER physicians and nurses first and the social worker was informed to follow through the abuse. A child physical abuse will also include:

  • Injury to a non-ambulatory infant.
  • Injury to a non-verbal child.
  • Burn injury to genitals.
  • When a caregiver is not concerned about the injury.
  • Delay in getting medical attention.

Psychological abuse

Includes verbal abuse and humiliation which results in the psychological sickness of the child.


Sexual abuse

Includes the involvement of developmentally immature children who are not able to comprehend or give any consent.  It is not about sex; it is an abuse of power and includes any behavior performed without the partner’s consent.  Victims would have a normal urogenital physical examination.  Only the strongest evidence for sexual abuse is the child’s statement.  Sexual abuse also includes:

  • Forcing to have sex with others.
  • When a victim is not conscious and not able to say NO.
  • Hurting using a weapon during sex.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Blood in the innerwear.
  • Pregnancy or any infections acquired.

Symptoms of child abuse can be known from the below activities:

  • Isolated from friends and other regular activities.
  • Suicide attempts.
  • Low self-esteem, fear, and depression.
  • Neglecting school and school activities.
  • Aggressive behavior.

Final thoughts:

Parent’s act which is done in the name of discipline is also child abuse.  Parents have to nurture their children, listen and respond, protect them, and have to love them unconditionally.  A good family supports the child to grow with self-esteem. Support your child and help to achieve more and more.